Exploring Solar Power Technology

Solar energy is a clean energy source and an important source of energy for the future. People have made some progress in solar power technology, both for public and private use, which has provided people with more power resources. Solar power technology is convenient, fast, non-polluting and developing very rapidly.

The article discusses solar photovoltaic power generation technology from the principle of solar power generation, analyzes the current development status of solar photovoltaic power generation technology, and unfolds the prospect of the current situation.

The rapid development of social economy and the improvement of the living standard of the residents are inseparable from the support of electric energy. Without electricity, the daily production and life of the residents will be greatly affected, and various industries will not be able to operate normally, and the society will be greatly affected by the negative impact.

In recent years, the demand for electric energy has been growing, and more electric energy is needed to support the development of society.

Non-renewable resources such as coal and natural gas are decreasing, and it is urgent to seek clean energy alternatives. Solar energy, as a renewable resource, is a huge source with promising development prospects.

Solar power technology is a clean, non-polluting, renewable new technology, in the core of the energy supplement, its role in the process of energy development is huge, is currently one of the most ideal alternative energy.

At present, the world’s energy shortage problem is prominent, the development and utilization of solar energy plays a key role in alleviating this problem.

Transformer Insulation Performance

How does solar power generate electricity?

solar energy advantages and disadvantages

With the development of time, human consumption of energy is increasing, and economic development has also accelerated the consumption of energy.

The rate of energy consumption cannot catch up with the rate of regeneration, and in the long run mankind will face an existential crisis.

Therefore, how to reduce the consumption of non-renewable traditional energy sources or seek new alternative sources of new energy is the primary problem to be solved in the world today.

Solar power technology is undoubtedly a sustainable development path.

Due to different principles, solar power generation is divided into two types of light-thermal-electricity conversion method and light-electricity direct conversion method, and the second type is the well-known solar photovoltaic power generation technology.

Read on : The Ultimate Guide to Transformer for Solar Power Plant

Principle of light-thermal-electricity conversion method

This method first uses solar collectors to collect thermal energy, convert it into steam, and then use the steam to drive a turbine to generate electricity.

The initial investment of power plants using this method is 5 to 10 times higher than that of ordinary thermal power plants, and the efficiency is low, so it is not widely used in various countries.

Solar Energy Technology

Principle of direct light-to-electricity conversion

In 1839, French scientists accidentally discovered the photovoltaic effect, that is, “the phenomenon that light causes a potential difference between different parts of an inhomogeneous semiconductor or semiconductor and metal bonding”.

It is the origin of solar power generation, and laid the foundation for the development of solar cells. Later, after development, the United States Bell Labs in 1951 really developed successful solar power technology.

Solar photovoltaic power generation technology uses semiconductor materials and the photovoltaic effect to convert solar energy into electricity, providing power support in the form of both independent use and grid-connected power generation.

There are inverters, solar panel modules, controllers, electronic components, solar transformers, etc. in photovoltaic power generation systems.

Among them, the solar cell is the core key equipment, which is a semiconductor photodiode, a device that can directly convert sunlight into electricity, which uses the photovoltaic effect.

When sunlight shines on the P-N junction of a semiconductor, a new hole-electron pair is formed.

Under the action of the electric field of the P-N junction, the holes flow from the N region to the P region, while the electrons flow in the opposite direction, from the P region to the N region, and if the circuit is connected, a current will be formed.

When multiple cells are connected in series and parallel, this solar cell square has a large output power.

Solar cells are flexible, clean and permanent. As long as the sun exists, solar energy will always exist, so solar cells can also be used forever.

Compared with nuclear power generation and thermal power generation, solar power generation is cleaner and more friendly to the environment.

Read more: What Solar Transformer is Used For Solar Power Plant?

Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation Technology

solar panels

In solar photovoltaic technology, the key is the conversion rate of solar panels, which means increased power generation. In solar cells, the more common applications are compound semiconductor cells and silicon-based cells.

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Compound semiconductor cells

Solar Power Technologies

Semiconductor silicon material is expensive, and it is too costly to choose this material for battery. The cost of compound semiconductor is very low, and the effect of using it as a battery instead of pure silicon material is almost the same.

The two main types of batteries made of compound semiconductors are CIGS batteries and CdTe batteries.

Compound semiconductors can adjust the width of the bulk energy gap between them, which can make them match the solar energy spectrum and improve the efficiency of converting light energy to electricity.

Theoretically, CdTe cells can convert about 30% of light energy into electricity, and their low cost and high stability are outstanding advantages.

In the process of converting light energy to electricity, the environmentally harmful metal Cd, which is toxic, is produced.

It has been found that CdTe cells produce the least amount of harmful metals and cause the least damage to the environment when compared to crystalline silicon cells and petroleum cells for the conversion of equal electrical energy.

Silicon-based Cells

Silicon-based solar panels are divided into non-crystalline silicon cells and crystalline silicon cells. Crystalline silicon cells are subdivided into polycrystalline silicon cells and monocrystalline silicon cells.

(1) Polycrystalline silicon cells have lower conversion efficiency, lower cost and the highest overall cost performance. Therefore, the highest use rate in the market is polycrystalline silicon cells.

(2) Monocrystalline silicon cells have high stability and high conversion rate, but the only drawback is the high cost, so the application is not as good as polycrystalline silicon cells.
Currently, the main research and development direction of crystalline silicon photovoltaic power generation technology is silicon thin film photovoltaic power generation technology.

Silicon thin film solar panels is in the traditional glass and other materials based on the additional layer of silicon thin film, made to support the substrate, and eventually made into solar cells.

The process is more complex, material consumption is less, the cost is more inexpensive.

The focus of the development of grid-connected photovoltaic systems is still silicon-based solar cells, high-efficiency silicon-based solar cell research and development can further compress the cost of the battery.

The development of solar cell technology can not only solve the problems of the battery itself in terms of materials and structure, but also make the system as a whole more stable, which is conducive to the increase in the total installed capacity of photovoltaic power generation and the further expansion of the thin-film solar cell industry.

Solar photovoltaic power generation system

There are mainly solar photovoltaic cells, storage batteries, inverters, control storage, etc. in solar photovoltaic power generation system.

When the photovoltaic panels convert the received solar energy into electrical energy, they are not directly utilized, but have to be processed through the inverter before they can be used normally.

This power generation system is mainly divided into two kinds: independent photovoltaic power generation system and grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system.

Stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system

Independent photovoltaic power generation system is generally applied in the mobile power supply, and the power generation mechanism that deals with the operation is an independent power generation system.

The system is generally established in remote areas such as the wilderness and is not connected to any power grid.

The electricity stored during the day will be stored in the batteries of the stand-alone PV system, and will be released at night to meet the electricity demand of remote areas that are not connected to the grid.

In practice, the stability of stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system is poor, in addition to itself, it is necessary to establish a separate power station with its use, so that the cost of photovoltaic power generation increased greatly, contrary to the original intention of clean energy generation.

Learn More About the: Impact of Distributed Photovoltaic Power Generation Systems On The Operating Characteristics of Distribution Solar Transformers

Grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system

Solar Power Technology

Grid-connected photovoltaic power generation system plays the role of a micro power station, which connects photovoltaic power generation, the power grid, and provides electricity for the public grid, both of which are used together.

Solar cells undergo a series of reactions under the sunlight to produce DC electricity.

After the DC power is transformed by inverters and other equipment, it is converted into AC power with the same frequency as the public grid.

At this point the AC power can be grid-connected and fed into the larger grid in the form of a current source.

The difference between a grid-connected PV system and a stand-alone PV system is that it no longer requires a battery, but is fed directly into the grid.

Compared to stand-alone systems, grid-connected PV systems are less expensive, have higher conversion efficiency, and are more stable in terms of power supply.

Therefore, the main direction of the current solar photovoltaic power generation industry is the research and application of grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems.

The practical application of solar photovoltaic power generation

The degree of practical application of solar photovoltaic power generation is closely related to the development of solar cell technology.

In the early years, solar cell technology is not perfect, immature, the utilization rate is not high and the cost is high, so it is only used in photovoltaic toys, photovoltaic calculators and other micro-power systems.

In recent years, the development of solar cell technology has enabled solar photovoltaic power generation technology has also been able to make great strides, especially in some traditional power grid can not reach the place, no electricity areas, etc., the application of independent concentrated photovoltaic power plant for them to bring the light.

The development of photovoltaic power generation technology is expanding, and grid-connected power generation is currently a hot technology.

Grid-connected PV power generation technology can be used to set up PV cells on building fences, rooftops, and other locations, and use these cells to meet the electricity needs of users.

The integrated PV building structure is beneficial for relieving the pressure on the power supply of the grid. Large grid-connected photovoltaic power plants can also be established in desert areas to generate electricity using sufficient solar resources.

The Gobi and desert regions are rich in solar energy resources, and the establishment of large, megawatt or even kilowatt-scale grid-connected photovoltaic power plants in the desert will greatly relieve the current pressure on the power supply.

Benefits of solar energy

With the investment of scientific research forces, the world has made great strides in the research and development of photovoltaic power generation technology.

Especially in recent years, with energy constraints and reduced rainfall, the market for solar photovoltaic power generation is also doubly respected, promoting the development of solar power generation technology.

The development of photovoltaic technology has a huge role in the reduction of pollutant emissions and the efficient use of clean and renewable energy.

The development of technology has reduced the investment cost of solar photovoltaic power generation systems.

The application of solar photovoltaic technology in public facilities has also contributed to the reduction of government spending on electricity.

As a result, public solar photovoltaic technology is gaining importance and its development is gradually accelerating.

With the increasing shortage of non-renewable resources such as oil and coal, the development of renewable and clean energy sources and their efficient use is a very important issue.

National policy support and relevant government subsidies issued have promoted the development of solar photovoltaic power generation technology.

Idle land can be fully utilized and built as grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems.

In places where light resources are abundant, vigorous search for idle land to build grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems not only reduces the waste of land resources, but also makes full use of solar energy, and contributes to solving the global energy shortage problem.

Conclusion

Solar photovoltaic power generation uses not only normal direct solar radiation, but also diffuse radiation. Compared with solar thermal power generation, photovoltaic power generation makes fuller use of solar resources.

And the stability of photovoltaic power generation is higher, and the impact on the power system is smaller. Vigorous development of solar power generation technology and improved utilization of clean energy will have a positive effect on alleviating global energy shortage.

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